Four dimensional X-ray microscope facility

@1 mm Compression
@2.2 mm Compression

Four dimensional X-ray microscope facility is a submicron resolution 3D X-ray microscope with insitu temperature controlled tensile and compression capability. This is a scintillator based multi-objective magnification X-ray microscope capable of multi-contrast imaging and 3D tomographic rendering.

Make and Model

Zeiss, Xradia Versa 520

Available mode for use

  • High aspect ratio tomography mode


  • True spatial resolution <700nm below 70nm minimum achievable voxel

  • Enhanced absorption contrast detectors maximize collection of contrast

  • Nondestructive X-ray microscopes uniquely characterize the microstructure of materials in simulated conditions-in situ-as well as the evolution of properties over time

  • Dual scan contrast visualizer provides flexible side-by-side tuning of two distinct tomographies at different imaging conditions or sample conditions.

  • Provides higher throughput imaging for flat samples such as those found with semiconductor packages and boards.


  • Materials Research
    Characterize materials, observe fracture mechanics, investigate properties at multiple length scales, quantify and characterize microstructural evolution. Perform in situ and 4D (time dependent) studies to understand the impact of heating, cooling, oxidation, wetting, tension, tensile compression, imbibition, drainage and other simulated environmental studies. Xradia 520 Versa offers non-destructive views into deeply buried micro-structures that may be unobservable with 2D surface imaging such as optical microscopy, SEM, and AFM; compositional contrast for studying low Z or "near Z" elements and other difficult-to-discern materials.

    Natural Resources
    Characterize and quantify pore structures, measure fluid flow, study carbon sequestration processes, analyze tailings to maximize mining efforts. Xradia 520 Versa offers the most accurate 3D submicron support for digital rock simulations,  in situ multiphase fluid flow studies, and 3D mineralogy.

    Life Sciences
    Perform virtual histologies, visualize cellular and subcellular features, characterize submicron structures in samples that are inches to centimeters in size. Expand your views in developmental biology with high resolution, high contrast images of cellular and subcellular structures. Xradia 520 Versa offers the highest resolution and best contrast in of lab-based computed tomography solutions for unstained and stained hard and soft tissues and biological microstructure.

    Optimize your processes, determine package reliability, perform failure analysis, analyze package construction. Xradia 520 Versa offers Non-destructive submicron imaging of intact packages for defect re-localization and characterization with a fast time to results. Xradia Versa offer the industry's highest resolution, non-destructive solution for 3D submicron imaging that complements or replaces physical cross sectioning methods.

Facility in-charge

Contact Email

fdxm[dot] saif[at] iitb[dot] ac[dot] in

Contact no.

022-2159 6855


SAIF Room No.103, 
Near Central Library,
I.I.T. Bombay,Powai, 
Mumbai - 400 076.

Other contact person(s)

  • Suhasini Pai

Registration Link:

Submit New Request

Information-External users

InformationForUsingFDXM_Facility.pdf186.24 KB

Registration form-External users

ExternalFDXMRegistrationForm.pdf56.62 KB
Technical Specifications


  • Instrument : Four Dimensional X-ray Microscopy
  • Model : Xradia Versa 520
  • Company : Zeiss

System has capability for : 

Unprecedented resolution in non-destructive 3D X-ray imaging

  • True spatial resolution <700 nm Below 70 nm minimum achievable voxel
  • Two-stage magnification that provides Resolution at a Distance (RaaD), delivering large, flexible working distances while maintaining submicron resolution
  • Non-destructive interior tomography uniquely enabled by Scout-and-Zoom

Advanced contrast capabilities for imaging challenging samples

  • Enhanced absorption contrast detectors maximize collection of contrast-forming low energy X-ray photons that are critical to imaging numerous material types
  • Tunable propagation phase contrast to visualize low Z materials and biological samples that tend to have limited absorption contrast
  • Maximum discernibility with dual energy probing of features normally indistinguishable within a single scan

The premier in situ and 4D solution

  • Nondestructive X-ray microscopes uniquely characterize the microstructure of materials in simulated conditions-in situ-as well as the evolution of properties over time (4D)
  • Supporting a wide variety of in situ rigs for submicron imaging of samples up to inches in size within environmental chambers and under varying conditions
  • RaaD enables Xradia Versa to maintain high resolution as the space between the X-ray source and sample grows whereas the resolution of conventional micro-CT architecture degrades when samples are placed within spacious in situ chambers


In addition to well-known advantages offered by the ZEISS Xradia Versa series of X-ray microscopes--highest resolution, best contrast, RaaD (resolution at a distance) and non-destructive submicron X-ray imaging--ZEISS Xradia 520 Versa advances lab-based X-ray imaging with breakthrough techniques and innovations:

Dual Scan Contrast Visualizer (DSCoVer)
DSCoVer provides flexible side-by-side tuning of two distinct tomographies at different imaging conditions or sample conditions. This enables compositional probing for features normally indistinguishable in a single scan, enabling you to seamlessly and easily collect the data required for dual energy analysis. Imaging a sample at two different X-ray spectra, or in two different states, aligning the resulting datasets and then combining them assures you will achieve optimum contrast for the material of interest and allow you to establish repeatable research parameters.

DSCoVer takes advantage of how X-rays interact with matter based on effective atomic number and density. This provides you with a unique capability for distinguishing, for example, mineralogical differences within rocks as well as among difficult-to-discern materials such as silicon and aluminum.

High-Aspect Ratio Tomography (HART)
The innovative High Aspect Ratio Tomography (HART) mode on Xradia 520 Versa provides you with higher throughput imaging for flat samples such as those found with semiconductor packages and boards. HART enables you to space variable projections so that you collect fewer projections along the broad side of a flat sample and more along the thin side. A wealth of 3D data is provided by these closely-spaced long views versus less densely-spaced short views.

You can also tune HART to emphasize higher throughput or better image quality, thereby potentially accelerating image acquisition speed by 2X.

Optional In Situ interface kit
X-ray imaging is uniquely suited to image materials under variable environments with controlled conditions including over time (4D) to non-destructively characterize and quantify the evolution of 3D microstructures. With its unique architecture, the Xradia Versa has emerged as the industry's premier solution supporting the use of the widest variety of in situ rigs, from high pressure flow cells to tension, compression and thermal stages. The optional In Situ Interface Kit delivers stable and robust management of often complex in situ electrical and plumbing facilities and ensures Xradia performance is maintained, along with recipe-based software capability that simplifies operation from within the Xradia Versa user interface. The In Situ Interface Kit is available on all Xradia Versa systems.

Imaging consists of directing X-rays at an object from multiple orientations and measuring the decrease in intensity along a series of linear paths. This decrease is characterized by Beer's Law, which describes intensity reduction as a function of X-ray energy, path length, and material linear attenuation coefficient. A specialized algorithm is then used to reconstruct the distribution of X-ray attenuation in the volume being imaged.

The gray levels in a slice image correspond to X-ray attenuation, which reflects the proportion of X-rays scattered or absorbed as they pass through each voxel. X-ray attenuation is primarily a function of X-ray energy and the density and composition of the material being imaged.

Central facility presentation
Presented Date Presentation File Presentation by (Prof.) Department
04-12-2017 View Presentation4.7 MB Prof. Asim Tewari Mechanical Engineering
28-02-2019 View Presentation2.09 MB Prof. Asim Tewari Mechanical Engineering
Publications using data from this facility


  • Martin J. Blunt, Branko Bijeljic, Hu Dong , Oussama Gharbi, Stefan Iglauer , Peyman Mostaghimi , Adriana Paluszny, Christopher Pentland, Pore-scale imaging and modelling, Advances in Water Resources 51 (2013) 197-216
  • C.L. Evans, E.M. Wightman , X. Yuan, Quantifying mineral grain size distributions for process modelling using X-ray micro-tomography, Minerals Engineering xxx (2015) xxx–xxx
  • M.G. Goff , F.M. Lambers , T.M. Nguyen, J. Sung, C.M. Rimnac , C.J. Hernandez, Fatigue-induced microdamage in cancellous bone occurs distant from resorption cavities and trabecular surfaces Bone 79 (2015) 8-14
  • Enrique Penalver, Antonio Arillo, Ricardo Perez-de la Fuente,Xavier Delclos, Eduardo Barron, David A. Grimaldi, Long-Proboscid Flies as Pollinators of Cretaceous Gymnosperms, Current Biology Report


Instructions for sample preparation/submission


  • Sample should be stable, that is it should not experience drift, while being imaged, as it may collide with the moving parts.
  • Max sample size permitted is 3cm * 3cm * 3cm.
  • For better results, sample should be much smaller than the maximum sample size.


Instructions for Users

Users should fill up the FDXM form and provide specific details about the specimen.

Instructions for Registration

Users should fill up the FDXM form and provide specific details about the specimen.