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Industrial Research And Consultancy Centre

VSM Instrument Details (2014) :

  • Make & Model : Quantum Design, USA
  • Installed on : June 2014
  • Purchased under the Scheme : RIFC

VSM Technical Specifications :

  • Magnetic Field Range : -90 kOe to +90 kOe
  • Temperature range : 2 K - 325 K
  • Resolution : 10-6 emu
  • Sample size (maximum) : length ~ 10 mm, breadth ~ 0.5 mm, thickness ~ 0.5 mm
  • Sample : bulk/thin film/powder

SQUID - VSM Instrument Details (2011) :

  • Make & Model : Quantum Design, USA
  • Installed on : October 2011
  • Purchased under the Scheme : RIFC

SQUID - VSM Technical Specifications :

  • Operating Range: 1.8 K to 400 K
  • Magnetic Field Range : -70 kOe to +70 kOe
  • Cooling/Heating Rate: upto 30 K/min
  • Resolution : ≤ 8 x 10-8 emu
  • Variable drive amplitude: 0.1 to 8 mm (peak)
  • Sample Chamber I.D. : 9 mm
  • Sample size (maximum) : length ~ 10 mm, breadth ~ 0.5 mm, thickness ~ 0.5 mm
  • Sample : bulk/thin film/powder

VSM Instrument Details (2005):

  • Make & Model : Quantum Design, USA
  • Installed on : September 2005
  • Purchased under the Scheme : ISPC - Thrust Area

VSM Technical Specifications :

  • Magnetic Field : -90 kOe to +90 kOe
  • Temperature range : 2 K - 325 K
  • Resolution : 10 -6 emu
  • Sample size (maximum) : length ~ 10 mm, breadth ~ 0.5 mm, thickness ~ 0.5 mm
  • Sample : bulk/thin film/powder




  • AC Susceptibility Measurement : 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz, sensitivity: ≤ 10-8 emu at 0 T.
  • Ultra - Low Field Capability : ± 0.05 G with a 7 T magnet.


PPMS-VSM Facility :
When a magnetic sample is kept in a uniform magnetic field, a magnetic moment is induced according to the nature of magnetism in the sample. If the sample is now vibrated with a certain ac frequency and amplitude, the moments will induce a signal in a set of pick-up coils kept close to the sample. The signal produced in the coils is proportional to the moment of the sample. If this signal can be calibrated with a known moment, then moment of the given sample can be obtained. For more details, check

SQUID VSM Facility :
SQUID VSM uses the same working principle as the normal VSM, but the detection coils (ordinary copper coils in VSM) are replaced by a set of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interferene Device) sensors in the gradiometer assembly. The presence of SQUID sensors makes sure that the sensitivity of detection increases. In addition, some extra features like faster cooling/heating rate and faster charging/ discharging of the magnet make this instrument faster than the conventional PPMS-VSM. This instrument has an additional facility to measure the AC susceptibility of the samples. For more details, check


1.Question: I have a large rock sample for which I want to measure the magnetization.  Can I just submit this for measurement?

Answer: The sample space in the magnetometer is limited.  Please discuss with the operator about what is reasonable.  Typically, 50 mg of sample is sufficient.  On the other hand, only a few mg of sample mass might be a lower limit depending on the sample type.

2.Question: I have a powder sample for which I want to measure the magnetization.  Is it possible to measure this?

Answer: It will be necessary to enclose the sample in something so that it does not fall in the sample chamber. It might be worth measuring the empty sample holder and then subtract this contribution from the sample + holder data.

3.Question: What is the field and temperature range available?

Answer: There are several machines available. PPMS-VSM, SVSM, MPMS extraction magnetometer. Please see the machine specs on the central facility (PPMS) website or discuss with the operator.

4.Question: I am getting a peak in the susceptibility at about 50 K. Could it be from the sample or is it of extrinsic origin?

Answer: Adsorbed oxygen can give a peak as described above.  To be sure, it would be better to flush the sample space above room temperature and re-measure.


  1. Deepika Rani, Jiban Kangsabanik, K. G. Suresh, N. Patra, D. Bhattacharyya, S. N. Jha, and Aftab Alam, Phys. Rev. Appl. 10 (2018) 054022
  2. S. Shanmukharao Samatham, Akhilesh Patel, Alexey Lukoyanov and K. G. Suresh, J. Phys. Cond. Mat., 30 (2018) 295802
  3. S Shanmukharao Samatham, K. G. Suresh and V. Ganesan, J. Phys. Cond. Mat., 30 (2018) 145602
  4. Y. Venkateswara, Sachin Gupta, S. Shanmukharao Samatham, Manoj Raama Varma, Enamullah, K. G. Suresh and Aftab Alam, Phys. Rev. B 97 (2018) 054407
  5. B. N. Sahu, K. G. Suresh, N. Venkataramani, Shiva Prasad and R. Krishnan, AIP Advances 8 (2018) 056118
  6. Ranjan  Roy, Dushyant  Singh, and  M.  Senthil  Kumar, AIP Conference Proceedings 1953, 120015 (2018).DOI: 10.1063/1.5033080
  7. Dushyant  Singh, Ranjan  Roy, and  M.  Senthil  Kumar, IEEE  International Magnetics Conference (Intermag-2018)”, from 23 to 27 April 2018
  8. Dushyant    Singh, Ranjan    Roy    and    M.    Senthil    Kumar, International Conference  on  Magnetic  Materials  and  Applications  (ICMAGMA-2018), December 09-13, 2018, NISER, Bhubaneswar, India
  9. Sharma, H., John, K., Gaddam, A., Navalkar, A., Maji, S.K. and Agrawal, A., Scientific reports, 8(1), p.12717 (2018).





  1. LiZn2V3O8: A new geometrically frustrated cluster spin-glass, S. Kundu, T. Dey, A. V. Mahajan and N. Buettgen, Journal  of Physics: Condensed Matter 32, 115601 (2020).
  2. Signatures of a spin-1/2  cooperative paramagnet in the diluted triangular lattice of Y2CuTiO6, S. Kundu, Akmal Hossain, Pranava Keerthi S., Ranjan Das, M. Baenitz, Peter J. Baker, Jean-Christophe Orain, D. C. Joshi, Roland Mathieu, Priya Mahadevan, Sumiran Pujari, Subhro Bhattacharjee, A. V. Mahajan, and D. D. Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 117206 (2020).
  3. Spin-1/2 chain compound Ba2Cu2Te2P2O13: magnetization, specific heat, and local-probe NMR, Vinod Kumar, Aga Shahee, S. Kundu, M. Baenitz, and A. V. Mahajan, Phys. Rev. B 102, 104419 (2020).
  4. Gapless quantum spin liquid in the triangular system Sr3CuSb2O9, S. Kundu, Aga Shahee, Atasi Chakraborty, K. M. Ranjith, B. Koo, Jörg Sichelschmidt, Mark T. F. Telling, P. K. Biswas, M. Baenitz, I. Dasgupta, Sumiran Pujari, and A. V. Mahajan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 267202 (2020).
  5.  Half-metallic ferromagnetism and Ru-induced localization in quaternary Heusler alloy CoRuMnSi.
    Y. Venkateswara, Deepika Rani, K. G. Suresh and Aftab Alam J. Magn. Magn. Mater.  502 (2020) 166536
  6. Physical and Magnetic Properties of (Ce1-xNdx)3Al (x = 0.3): Coexisting Ferromagnetism and Kondo Effect, Durgesh Singh, Manju Mishra Patidar, V. Ganesan and K. G. Suresh, J.
    Magn., Magn., Mater. 514 (2020) 167184
  7. D. Singh, R. Roy and M. Senthil Kumar, “Magnetic and magnetotransport study of Si/Ni multilayers correlated with structural and microstructural properties”, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 497 (2020) 166053.




  1. Non-Stoichiometry Induced Exsolution of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles via Formation of Wavy Surfaces and their Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity: Case of Misfit Calcium Cobalt Oxide Roy, K.S., Subramaniam, C., Panchakarla, L.S. 2021, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 13(8), pp. 9897-9907

Your sample can be in pellet, powder, or thin film form.  In case of a powder sample, enclose it in a sample holder or wrap in Teflon tape. The typical sample mass needed is in the range of 10-50 mg. Submit the sample in a sample bottle/box with sample identification and mass clearly marked. The operator will load the sample for you.

The operator might call you when loading your sample.  Come prepared with the field and temperature sequence required for your measurement.  Once the measurements are finished, please enter the number of samples actually measured and take back your samples.  We will provide the data in electronic form.  On publication of a paper containing these data, please provide the citation to the convener, PPMS central facility.

Register with your LDAP id on the relevant website.